No pain no gain – but unfortunately unnecessary pain when the obvious dangers are ignored. Politicians suffer no pain – you do.

5th December, 1940 : The Italians, faced with an increasingly serious situation, have brought in substantial reinforcements through the port of Valona and the airfield at Tirane including the Tridentina Alpine division, but a good number of them fall out as they march up to the line. They are extremely short of equipment; there are little or no reserves of ammunition and of woollen clothing (and in the very cold weather there are many cases of frostbite). None the less the Italian command succeeds in establishing a defensive line from Himare along the coast to north of Sarande on Lake Okhrida – largely because the Greeks, hardly motorised at all and entirely without armour, cannot exploit their successes. The pivot of the Italian line lies at the positions between Klisura and Tepelene in the Vijose valley. Klisura is lost and re-taken. Chaos reigns among the Italians.

About Ludwig von Gress

Born in communist Europe, interested in defence matters on a macro scale, with a cavalry “devil may care spirit” from his grandfather and cautious effectiveness of asymmetric warfare approach from his guerilla father. He sometimes despairs that he may be the only one taking the defence of Australia seriously.
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